Demographic Differences of Adults with Diabetes Mellitus- cross-sectional study

Valmi D. Sousa, Jaclene A Zauszniewski, Carol M Musil

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to examine differences in scores on diabetes knowledge, social support, self-efficacy, self-care agency, self-care management, and glycemic control of individuals who were males or females, younger or older, with less or more education, with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and with a shorter or longer duration of diabetes. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional design was used in the study, which was a secondary analysis of data from a larger study. The sample for this analysis included 141 adults attending an outpatient diabetes care center in the Southern United States. The instruments consisted of a demographic questionnaire and standard tools with established psychometric properties. Data analysis consisted of t-tests. The results show that there were significant mean differences between individuals who (a) were younger and older in regard to diabetes knowledge, self-care agency, and diabetes self-care management, (b) had less or more than a high school education in regard to diabetes knowledge, and (c) had type 1 or type 2 diabetes in regard to diabetes knowledge, self-care agency, and diabetes self-care management. In conclusion, specific demographics variables differ in scores on diabetes knowledge, self-care agency, and self-care activities, which are some of the fundamental factors to achieve glycemic control and prevent disease-related complications. These variables should be considered when designing and implementing a diabetes educational program.

Descriptors


Demographic Variables, Diabetes Education, Self-Efficacy, Self-Care Agency, Diabetes Self-Care Management, Glycemic Control.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1676-4285.2006294