This is a qualitative case study which aimed to describe the conceptions of health-illness and the needs for attention to the population’s health care discussing them under the Integrality principles and the implantation of the Family Health Care strategy. The setting of this research was a Jequitinhonha District in Vale do Jequitinhonha, in the northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Open interviews were done and to analyze the data it was used the Content Analysis technique and the pieces of information collected was organized in two thematic categories: the health-illness conceptions of people from Caju, Minas Gerais and the search for solutions of the attention problems of local population’s health care. The data analyses enabled to recognize integrality as an organizational axis of health care practices whose objective is to meet the needs of the populations’ health care such as guaranteeing access to the health care system. It is necessary to prioritise this principle to face the health care problems suffered by the population as a social, environmental, sanitary, epidemiological and assistencial gross.